Motivation and Approach:
Compressed hydrogen trailers are cost efficient for near term distribution. However, with the currently used 20 MPa trailers the supply of larger refuelling stations would result in multiple truck deliveries per day, which is often not acceptable. In order to increase the transported quantities, lighter materials and higher pressure must be adopted. The cost increase of the hydrogen trailers resulting from advanced technology can be off-set by the distribution cost savings from increased truck capacity.
This project will assess the effects that can be achieved by the introduction of high capacity trailers composed of composite tanks with respect to weight, safety, energy efficiency and green-house gas emissions.
Transport of compressed hydrogen today is strictly regulated by international and regional regulations. New materials and product capacities available today have the potential to increase the payload of a single trailer from about 350 kg hydrogen today to more than 1,000 kg. Materialising this potential is therefore of great importance for the efficient distribution of hydrogen to refuelling stations with high throughput. This will require changes to existing Regulations, Codes and Standards (RCS) in particular for proof pressures higher than 65 MPa and tubes larger than 3,000 litres. Adopting these changes is a time consuming process and will only happen if authorities are convinced that the necessary safety precautions are taken care of to achieve a level of safety at least as high as observed with today’s distribution technologies for hydrogen.
The proposed project will address these challenges by means of a detailed assessment of safety, environmental and techno-economic impacts of the use of higher capacity trailers and subsequently by the development of a preliminary action plan leading to a Roadmap for the required RCS amendments, which will be communicated to the authorities in charge.
January 2012 to December 2013
Budget & Funding:
Total Budget: 1,247,773 €
FCH JU Funding: 719, 502 €
WP 1: Project coordination [Lead: LBST]
Financially and formal project administration, organization of general meetings and workshops, progress monitoring, service of public and internal website, coordination of smooth and efficient internal project communication.
Task 1.1: Consortium management activities
Task 1.2: DeliverHy secretariat
Task 1.3: Internal and external project communication (project internal website etc.)
WP 2: Limitations of current solution with regard to future needs [Lead: H2L]
This work package will focus on analysing how compressed hydrogen is being and can be distributed in Europe today based on the existing status of relevant RCS. Options for transfer of hydrogen from central production facilities to the transport unit, and different options for delivery from the transport unit to the refuelling stations will be described. The analysis will in particular focus on identifying limitations in terms of costs across the distribution in comparison with hydrogen price targets at the pump and capacity requirements and potential constraints. Also the impact and limitations that 20 MPa distribution has on the hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) footprint, design and operation will be analysed. Energy use and costs associated with existing transport units (limited upwards to what is possible based on existing RCS) shall be established for use as a reference point for the evaluation of the new solutions within the project. The analyses are to give a detailed overview of issues and limitations of present 20 MPa hydrogen distribution that 40 MPa+ distribution are to address and potentially solve.
Task 2.1: Technical & cost limitations of state-of-the-art 20 MPa CGH2 distribution
Task 2.2: Distribution impact, interface and issues at the hydrogen refuelling station
Task 2.3: Allowable costs and design parameters across the supply chain
WP 3: Impact of high pressure composite technology [Lead: LBST]
Compare supply modes using high capacity trailers with supply modes using conventional trailers, with regard to transport capacity, storage costs, use of space at point of use, emissions, energy efficiency, and other practical considerations.
Task 3.1: Definition of benchmark technologies for delivery task and compilation of data
Task 3.2: Comparison of high pressure/volume delivery with benchmark technologies
Task 3.3: Sensitivity analysis and strategic conclusions
WP 4: RCS barriers/gaps and preliminary action plan [Lead: AL]
The objective of this work package is to figure out all relevant barriers (ADR, TPED, ISO) and/or gaps hindering safe and efficient distribution of compressed hydrogen in Europe and to describe who to approach and how these barriers can be overcome. As there are many different RCS, at different international levels having impact on the requirements, it is important to prepare a preliminary action plan on what and how the international RCS gaps can be addressed to achieve more efficient distribution of compressed hydrogen in an at least equal or safer way.
Task 4.1: Identification of barriers/gaps
Task 4.2: Preliminary action plan
WP 5: Justification of RCS Changes [Lead: NTNU]
This WP will focus on the consequences of increasing volume and pressure capacity of composite pressure vessels for hydrogen distribution systems with respect to Regulations, Codes and Standards (RCS). A failure modes analysis will be performed to determine to what extent the removal of the current limits on volume and pressure can be justified. Results of on-going pre-normative research activity (a.o. from HyCOMP in Europe and from relevant US activities) on improved design requirements for composite pressure vessels, considering lifetime assessment of the material properties as well as materials and components behaviour, will be collected and analysed, in view of their application to high pressure trailers, in particular with regards to the maximum allowable stress level in the composite wrapping, liner and metal boss. It will further suggest relevant small and large scale test methods for material components and complete transport modules that can be used in improved RCS.
Task 5.1: Justification of RCS changes on composite pressure vessels
Task 5.2: Proposal for definition of maximum stress level in composite pressure vessels
WP 6: Recommendations and Roadmap for RCS [CCS]
The objective of this WP is to summarise the findings and recommendations from WP2 to WP5 concerning the safe storage of compressed hydrogen in composite cylinders and to prepare and provide the project results that they can be used by the international hydrogen and fuel cell community.
This WP will also extract and prioritise recommendations to support Regulations Codes and Standards (RCS) initiatives at the international level. This step will provide a comprehensive path forward that will define how the project findings can be integrated into ongoing or new RCS activities.
Task 6.1: Summarise findings, improvements, justifications, identified gaps and preliminary proposed actions from WP4 and from WPs 5 and 7.
Task 6.2: Prepare technical recommendations to industry and recommendations for regulatory improvements for RCS bodies
Task 6.3: Dissemination to industry (H2&FC community) and to WP7
WP 7: Interaction with Authorities [HEX]
Introduction of higher capacity transport modules for distribution of compressed hydrogen will require strong support from authorities in at least one country that is willing to forward needed proposals for changes to the relevant international regulatory committees. This activity targets to have an open dialog with at least two national authorities in Europe and with DOT in US and use their recommendations for needed justification of critical changes in relevant to the RCS findings.
Task 7.1: Identifying Authorities
Task 7.2: Strategy plan
Task 7.3: Communication and harmonisation